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Severity of illness and organ dysfunction were assessed by APACHE II, SAPS and SOFA scores. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson x2, independent t test, Levene significance control, Mann hitney U test, and paired t test. The control criterion was P (significance) a (significance level), a = 5 . Results The two groups were Baicalein biological activity comparable in terms of age, APACHE II score and SAPS. There was a statistically significant difference in the admission SOFA score (P << a), the SOFA score of the tracheotomy day (P = 0.003) and in SOFA max (P << a), as well as the total days of mechanical ventilation (Group A 18.36 ?12.059 vs Group B 24.19 ?14.27, P = 0.05) and the LOS (Group A 16.75 ?7.038 vs Group B 22.51 ?10.726, P = 0.007). No difference was observed regarding the days of weaning after tracheotomy (Group A 7.56 ?6.135 vs Group B 9.19 ?9.24) and mortality (25 vs 23.9 , respectively). The prevalence of VAP was evaluated in 58 patients. In Group A VAP developed in 23.1 , vs 76.9 of patients in Group B (P = 0.099). There was no difference in the day VAP was diagnosed (P = 0.959). A significant difference in the days of sedative administration before and after tracheotomy was observed in both groups (before: 7.49 ?5.34 days, after: 4.76 ?8.05 days, P = 0.005). Days of sedative administration before tracheotomy were significantly different (Group A 4.32 ?2.083 vs Group B 9 ?5.690, P = 0.003). Conclusions Our results reinforce the findings of previous studies showing that early tracheotomy decreases significantly the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU LOS and total days of sedative administration, and may provide a benefit in reducing the occurrence of VAP.P332 Precocious tracheotomy versus prolonged intubation in a medical ICUB Charra, A Hachimi, A Benslama, S Motaouakkil Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco Critical Care 2008, 12(Suppl 2):P332 (doi: 10.1186/cc6553) Introduction The main purpose of our study was to assess whether precocious tracheotomy, compared with prolonged intubation, reduces the duration of ventilation, the frequency of nosocomial pneumopathy, the duration of hospitalization and the mortality. Methods A retrospective and comparative study between two groups who present a neurologic or respiratory pathology and require mechanical ventilation for more than 3 weeks. The study covered 7 years and was about 60 patients divided into two groups: tracheotomy group (TG, n = 30), where the tracheotomy was realized between the eighth day and the 15th day, after the first period of intubation; and intubation group (IG, n = 30), where the patients are still intubated during the whole period of hospitalization until extubation or death. We determined the duration of ventilation, the frequency of nosocomial pneumopathy, the mean duration of hospitalization and the mortality. The statistical study was based on the chi-squared test for qualitative variables and on Student's test for quantitative variables. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The two groups contain a similar number of cases that have the same diagnosis. They have the same data about age, the sex and the gravity score: SAPS II and APACHE II score. Results There was a significant statistical decrease of the whole durati.